Motivation Quotation......

Aku meminta kepada Tuhan setangkai bunga, segar, Ia beri kaktus berduri. Aku minta kupu-kupu diberinya-Nya ulat berbulu. Aku sedih dan kecewa. Namun kemudian, kaktus itu berbunga indah sekali dan ulat itupun menjadi kupu-kupu yang sangat cantik. Itulah jalan Tuhan, indah pada masaNYA! Tuhan tidak memberi apa yang kita harapkan. Tapi Dia memberi apa yang kita perlukan. Kadang kala kita sedih, kecewa dan terluka. Tapi jauh di atas segalanya Dia sedang mengatur yang terbaik dalam kehidupan kita.............................................

Monday, January 19, 2009

Case Study method

Sources : Research Methods in Business Studies
~ Pervez Ghauri,Kjell Gronhaug,Ivar Kristianslund,1995
Case Study method
Case studies are ‘particularly well-suited to new research areas or research area for which existing theory seems inadequate ; this type of work is highly complementary to incremental theory building from normal science research; the former is useful in early stages of research on a topic or when a fresh perspective is needed, while the latter is useful in later stages of knowledge'(Eisenhardt; 1989:548-9)

However if we refer to Yin(1989), we have to consider three situations to select the research methods where ;

~ the type of research questions
~ the control of the researcher over behavioural events
~ the focus on a current as opposed to historical phenomenon

Preparing for a case study
Once our research problem suggest case study as the preferred data collection method , we should deal with questions as;
~what are the skills needed to conduct case study?
~what types of a priori assumption de we have?
~how do we select the cases?
~how many cases shall we include in our study?
~how we shall we conduct the case study?

A priori propositions
For exploratory and inductive types of study~~~research questions e.g How; Why and Where
Fo descriptive or causal studies ~~~~theoretical base(theory building) and propositions

How to select the cases
It is important to decide the target population which will be used for investigation e.g firms,individuals,groups or elements that will be represented in the study
Then have accessibiltyto the population then either one or few cases

How to conduct a case study
Fully aware and should comprehend the research problem and purpose of the study ;
-Must be able to listen and interpret the answers
-To be more observant and good listener
-Can’t let the biases influences the interpretation

Different types of case study design
1- single case design, holistic
2- single case design,embedded
3- multiple case design,holistic
4- multiple case design,embedded

Source: Research Design in Social Research ~ David Vaus,2001
C:13 > Case study design
-What is a case?
> unit of analysis-case-the object of study ;
individual,places,organizations,events,decision and time periods
> holistics(case as whole) and embedded units of analysis(cases that consists of various
levels or components)~ (Yin;1989)
-Case Study and Theories
> Explanatory - 3 ways ; theory testing, theory building case studies and clinical case
> Descriptive ; description & theory , typologies & ideal types and inductive typologies
-Other elements of case studies design
> Single / Multiple
> Parallel / Sequential
> Restropective /Prospective
-Types of case studies designs;
> descriptive / explanatory
> theory testing / theory building
> single case / multiple case
> holistic / embedded units of analysis
> parallel / sequential of case studies
> restropective / prospective

C.14> Issues in case study design
-Methodological issues
> internal validity
> idiographic and nomothetic explanations
> wholes,not just parts
> history and motivation
> reactive effects
> external validity
> theoretical and statistical generalization
> replication
> strategic selection of cases
-practical issues
> method of case selection
> number of cases
> case screening
> cost and access ; no. of investigators, when to go in to the field , presenting case studies
- ethical issues
~ apply to all research design includes case studies

C.15> Case study analysis
- statistical analysis
- meaning and context
- analysis in descriptive case studies - theoretical dimension of descriptive analysis ;
> ideal type analysis
> typologies - cluster analysis approach
> time ordered descriptions
-explanatory case studies -theory testing analysis
> pattern matching -more complex pattern : multiple dependent
> time series analysis ; trend analysis,chronolgical analysis and
literal & theoretical replication

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